Relevant Findings

Selected relevant findings in the dissHEAT project


  • Technology impact and integration research in:

    • Combustion heating with fuel-flexible burners for future fuels: hydrogen, biofuels, ammoniac and oxidizers: air, oxygen enhanced combustion OEC, oxy-fuel (100 % O2)

    • NOx-emissions: development of ultra LowNOx burners for future fuels

    • Efficiency in heating with new technologies and fuels by heat-recovery from exhaust

      – customizes solutions for specific plants and use cases

    • Applying dark zone (when enough space in furnace available) for direct heat recovery from exhaust

    • Combination of measures (from combustion, heat recovery, control, process operation, hot charging) for increased efficiency and future-fuel savings in furnace heating.

Heat Recovery, Heat Transfer, Productivity:

  • Impact of fuel saving technologies in future – integration research in:

    • Hybrid furnace heating: combination of combustion and electric heating (induction, resistive electric heating)

    • Retrofitting with electrolysers and RDH – research in up-scaling

    • System integration (internal integration within steel mill, interaction with gas and power grids, with chemical industry for synthetic fuel production, domestic heating and hot water production

    • Mini mills for efficient product-specific (mass) production.


Modelling, Control level 2:

  • Impact of modelling technologies and integration research in:

    • Artificial intelligence and machine learning,

    • Physical-injected neural network,

    • Dynamic and/or auto-adaptive modelling for process optimisation and control.

    • Big data and advanced analytics overview for predictive apps and operational reports.

Control level 1, Regulations:

  • Impact of alternative heating systems on standards and regulations:

    • Revision of emission measurement standards for measurement for moist basis recommended (EN 14792, EN 14181, EN 15267-3/-4)

    • Revision of NOx limit definitions for flexible fuel operation or hybrid heating operation (electric and gas) recommended

    • Revision of the BREF Document for Ferrous Metals Processing recommended to include new BAT-AELs definitions

    • The use of alternative fuels such as hydrogen is partially mentioned and defined in ISO 13577-2 “Industrial furnaces and associated processing equipment – Safety – Part 2: Combustion and fuel handling systems”.



  • Technology impact and integration research in:

    • Impact of future reheating technologies (i.e., H2-combustion and electric heating) on steel grades – perform a full screening of all relevant grades,

    • Avoid impact of furnace atmospheres on surface and/or scaling by coatings of alternative metallurgic compositions,

    • Wear of plant components, like burner nozzle, electric resistance heaters, adhesion on ceramics by new fuels and heating technologies in reheating processes.